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  • 4 Feb 2022 1:07 AM | Giuliana Barajas (Administrator)

    Is Red Nile Tilapia an Invasive Species?

    By: Raul Pajaro Sanchez

    Tilapia is typically an herbivorous species, however, the Red Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an omnivorous type of fish that feeds on plants and animals, including eggs and larvae. The accidental and deliberate introduction of tilapia species into any ecosystem can lead to a plague with irreparable damage to the environment and the economy of the region where it occurs. According to experts, tilapia’s ability to adapt and reproduce quickly allows it to dominate most of the environments where it is introduced - this makes it an invasive species. Studies indicate that invasive species, including tilapia, have a negative impact on the global economy of approximately $1.4 billion US dollars annually.

    The problem with tilapia occurs when it is released into ecosystems where endemic species are not prepared to coexist or fight to survive. The Red Nile Tilapia adapts and reproduces quickly, so controlling them or expelling them from a free habitat is complicated, time-consuming, and expensive. The impact of any introduction varies according to the geographical region and the specific ecosystem. Generally, given its resistance, voracity, and high growth rate, tilapia easily becomes a competitor to other fish species.

    Tilapia are responsible for severe ecological impacts in natural environments, such as the displacement of native species in the river to other bodies of water like seas and oceans. Likewise, as an exotic species, it is invasive in developing countries. Additionally, their treatment has also been changing them over the last 20 years. In the catalog of exotic and transplanted aquatic biodiversity in Colombia, Oreochromis niloticus is considered a high-risk species, giving it a score of 1056 out of a maximum value of 1500 points (Gutiérrez et al., 2010 cited by Gutiérrez & Lasso, 2012).


    In addition, Australia has indicated that the Red Nile Tilapia is an extreme risk in the risk analysis of introduced exotic fish species, giving it a rating of 23 (out of 24) points (Bomford & Glover, 2004). Other countries that have also reported the Red Nile Tilapia as an invasive species  are Bangladesh, Japan, Peru, the Philippines, India, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, and the United States (Global Invasive Species Database, 2012c).

    Red Tilapia and Specifications

    • Within the Genus Oreochromis, the first ancestor of red Tilapia is reported as an “albino mutation” in a traditional culture of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus with a standard color (black) introduced from Singapore in 1946, near the town of Tainan (Taiwan) in 1968.

    • Ho Kuo (Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute) in 1969 made the cross between the reddish-orange mutant male O. mossambicus and the normal-colored female O. niloticus, obtaining an F1 with 25% of reddish-orange fingerlings. After nine years, selective crosses could fix the red coloration in 70 to 80% of the population.

    • The Red Tilapia became the spearhead for the accelerated development of commercial fish farming from the 1980s on in countries with no South American aquaculture tradition, such as Colombia (introduced in 1982), Venezuela (introduced in 1989), and Ecuador (introduced in 1993) almost simultaneously with Central American, the Caribbean and North American countries.

    The development of this hybrid allowed the market to obtain many advantages over other species.

    • A high percentage of muscle mass (Large steak)
    • Absence of intramuscular spines
    • Rapid growth
    • Adaptability to the environment
    • Disease resistance
    • Excellent texture and color of meat, with outstanding acceptance in the market

    References
    http://www.conabio.gob.mx/institucion/proyectos/resultados/LI007_Anexo_10_Ficha_Oreochromis_niloticus.pdf
    https://www.scidev.net/america-latina/news/decreto-en-brasil-impulsa-cultivo-de-especie-invasora/
    https://datanoticias.com/2021/02/03/4-veces-en-las-que-la-tilapia-destruyo-un-ecosistema/amp/
    https://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2004000100015
    https://revistabioika.org/es/ecoando/post?id=55







  • 13 Jan 2022 7:42 AM | Anonymous

    Prof. Dr Dušan Palić, D.V.M., MVSc, Ph.D., Dipl. ECAAH, CertAqV

    D. V. M. (1997), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Belgrade University; MVSc (2002), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Belgrade University; Ph. D. (2005), Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine; Dipl. ECAAH (2013), European College of Aquatic Animal Health; CertAqV (2013) Certified Aquatic Veterinarian by World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association.


    Professor and Chair of Fish Diseases and Fisheries Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich.

    Professor Palić comes from a long line of veterinarians and educators, being the third generation Professor of Veterinary Medicine. He received D.V.M. and MVSc degrees from Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade, Serbia, and Ph.D. from Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine, where he worked with CFSPH/Jim Roth as assistant professor until he accepted invitation to LMU Munich and took over the Chair for Fish Diseases in 2012.

    Dušan is a founding member, certified aquatic veterinarian (CertAqV), and Past President of World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association (www.wavma.org). He is a founding diplomate and former Vice-President of European College of Aquatic Animal Health (ECAAH, www.ecaah.org), and the Director of the International Aquatic Veterinary Biosecurity Consortium (IAVBC, www.iavbc.org). As senior expert in aquatic animal health for Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Prof. Palić has spent significant time in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia working on preparation of the National Aquatic Animal Health Strategy and Action Plan for KSA. Dušan was a representative of academia and organized aquatic veterinary profession in the FishMedPlus Coalition that was established by Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE) upon request from European Medicine Agency (EMA), with the goal to improve access and availability of veterinary medical products, including vaccines, to the E.U. aquaculture industry. He is an expert member in WG3 Farm Management for preparation of “Partnership for Animal Health and Welfare (PAHW)”, for Horizon Europe. Currently he is an aquaculture expert on World Veterinary Association project for the development of essential medicines lists. On the global veterinary education front, Prof. Palić is member of the project team that is developing a model curriculum for day-1 competency in aquatic veterinary medicine. His daily work as Chair for Fish Diseases at LMU Munich includes research, teaching, diagnostic, and extension services.

    As world aquaculture is steadily growing and overtaking terrestrial protein production, it is becoming clear that sustainable and safe use of water resources must be achieved to support The Global Goals and provide safe and affordable food for increased human population. What recent history taught us is that such global expansion of aquaculture is prone to catastrophic crashes due to emerging and re-emerging diseases. Overuse of antibiotics with and without veterinary supervision poses a serious problem to human health as multi-drug resistance is increasing. Lack of educated veterinary workforce to support industry growth is further widening the service/demand gap. All of the above comes together in one health approach, in which major pillar is identified to be disease prevention, control and possible eradication through biosecurity approaches that are in accordance with international standards and national legislations. As one of the invited speakers, Dušan will provide insight on current disease challenges in aquaculture, and discuss how aquatic veterinary biosecurity could contribute to sustainable and safe increase in aquatic ecosystems resources use for aquaculture.




  • 10 Jan 2022 6:51 AM | Anonymous

    Tilapia is one of the most well-positioned species for trade and production in seafood and aquaculture. In 2020, it reached a value of $7.9 billion USD and the market is expected to grow at a compounding annual rate of 6.1% during the 2021-2026 projection. Tilapia is found in most countries of the world, as more than 140 countries now produce it. An essential component of the growing tilapia industry is the proliferation of ways in which tilapia is packaged and sold. Tilapia exports were initially only whole and frozen fish. Currently, fresh or frozen fillets can be obtained in different sizes and packages: with skin, without skin, individually set, smoked, and in "sashimi" grade. 



    The tilapia market has been produced mainly in countries like China, Indonesia, Egypt, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Brazil, Thailand and others, where China is the leading producer and trader of tilapia globally. For the remainder of 2021, international tilapia trade statistics are uncertain and largely dependent on events affecting the trade relationship between China and the United States. The Chinese tilapia market could increase the Chinese industry's current difficulties and strengthen competing producers' positions.


    In recent years, tilapia has suffered from bad press in the United States. US demand has stagnated as a result of American consumers preferring fillets over whole fish, even though the seafood category as a whole is performing relatively well. Due to this, in the first three months of the year, China exports frozen fillets to the US market to meet demand. The value of tilapia being exported by China now exceeds the sum of $714 million USD. It should be noted that China is globally recognized in the industry for generating low export costs with $1.05 and $0.77USD quality and mass production. Indonesia follows China at $1.66USD generally and by supplying premium tilapia in the $6-7USD per kg price range, which saw exports to the United States rise significantly in the first quarter of 2021. Nevertheless, the Indonesian market absorbs the majority of domestic production. 


    In Africa, Egypt exports 80% of its tilapia, which is 940,000 of the 1.2 million produced. In Latin and South America, several countries have embarked on initiatives intended to help develop tilapia production. Brazil, for example, has increased its production by 12%+, producing around 400,000 tones in a year. The governments in Colombia and Mexico have invested in the tilapia programs in order to improve production and export development in hopes of capitalising on the premium target market in the United States. The Colombian government also has the National Commission of Aquaculture and Fisheries (CONAPESCA) that is in charge of supervising and following up public policies and rates abroad.


    The tilapia market continues to grow and develop in many countries. The countries that are developing advances in the industry are discussing tilapa sub-products such as biodiesel, medical biomaterials, leather, accessories, skin gelatin for slow-release medications, and flower arrangements made with dried flakes. The countries are betting on investment, production, commercialization and export of the species. Tilapia is seen as the future of the mass production of fish for farming and wild living.


    References

    https://www.infopesca.org/sites/default/files/complemento/actividadesrecientes/adjuntos/1369/5%20Indonesia-Tilapia%20Production%20and%20Trade.pdf

    https://www.imarcgroup.com/tilapia-market

    https://www.fao.org/in-action/globefish/market-reports/resource-detail/ar/c/337461/

    https://aquafishcrsp.oregonstate.edu/sites/aquafishcrsp.oregonstate.edu/files/gaa-fitzsimmons2-sept06_1.pdf

    https://ciencia.lasalle.edu.co/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1459&context=maest_administracion



  • 7 Jan 2022 6:36 AM | Anonymous


    Tilapia are better known in the marine ecosystem as "Oreochromis niloticus" and are endemic to Africa. Taking advantage of their characteristics and adaptability, they were considered ideal for rural fish farming. Tilapia have been rapidly introduced to other tropical and subtropical countries throughout the world. Currently, they are distributed in Southeast Asia, southern North America, Central America, the southern Caribbean, the Middle East and Africa. A shocking 98% of all tilapia production takes place outside the typical environment for tilapia.

    Tilapia are viable outside of their typical environment because of their high level of adaptability to different environmental conditions, as well as their high rate of spawning and fertilization. In addition, the tilapia show rapid growth as they can  reach weights of 1 to 1.5 pounds (about 450-680 grams) in a period of 6 to 9 months, depending on the culture system used. Tilapia can be subjected to intensive or super-intensive cultivation, which leads to the increase in production volume and the reduction in operating costs. 

    Tilapia also have a high resistance to diseases. This characteristic allows it to show more remarkable survival and therefore greater profitability, as breeders do not have to invest as much in medicines to keep the tilapia healthy. They are generally a herbivorous species, although they accept all kinds of food, both natural and artificial. For aquaculture farms, tilapia is a species that is resistant to handling and diseases, physical and chemical factors, as well as the process required to manage the production system, including liming, fertilization, sampling, biometrics, parameter control, and proper regulation. 


    Global Market Overview



    In the top populated countries, tilapia is a widely produced and consumed species. In 1998, the Tilapia Marketing Institute (TMI) was formed to organize producers and marketers to carry out generic campaigns to increase consumption of tilapia in its various forms. For some years now, in the United States, tilapia has been the third most imported aquatic product after marine shrimp and Atlantic salmon. Since 1998, it has been considered the fish of the year, according to the American Tilapia Association (ATA). In 2001, it began to appear in the “America's Top 10 Seafoods”. It is expected that the growth of its consumption will maintain an average minimum annual increase of 3 to 5%. Last year Global tilapia production grew by 3.3 per cent despite the impact of Covid-19.

    The tilapia market initially started as a type of whole frozen fish, but the United States consumers prefer the fillet, which is mainly supplied by Jamaica, Colombia and Costa Rica, as a fresh product. The market for tilapia as a protein is constantly expanding. Many European countries are just discovering tilapia, so there is a high potential for increased imports of the species into Europe in the years to come.



    References

    https://www.fao.org/fi/static-media/MeetingDocuments/TiLV/dec2018/p13.pdf

    https://thefishsite.com/articles/2020-tilapia-production-figures-revealed

    https://www.fao.org/in-action/globefish/marketreports/resource-detail/es/c/1365183/

    https://tilapia.market/es/tilapia-byproducts-commercial-uses-of-the-tilapia-processing-and-filleting-industries-waste/



  • 6 Jan 2022 1:31 PM | Anonymous

    A recent agreement between GenoMar Genetics and Agroavicola Sanmarino has been signed to distribute tilapia fingerlings in the Huila region.


    By: Raul Pajaro Sanchez


    A very important agreement has been made between two companies in the tilapia industry to strengthen and deliver a higher quality of tilapia to customers. GenoMar Genetics, with over 30 years of experience in tilapia breeding, and Agroavicola Sanmarino, with 25 years of experience in the poultry industry, will establish a new company in the next few weeks, named GenoMar Genetics Colombia, which has already secured a quarantine and parent stock farm.

    This is an important move for the tilapia industry because it gives Colombia a push in the market as it  “is the second to third-largest tilapia producer in Latin America and has a very export-oriented value chain that professionalizes quickly,” said Alejandro Tola Alvarez, CEO of GenoMar Genetics Group.

    “Both companies have worked hard and patiently over several years with the vision of bringing genetic innovations and supply security to the Colombian tilapia industry,” he adds. GenoMar, with its presence in Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Brazil, and Norway (headquarters) will supply the entire parent stock requirement from their breeding operations in Asia and/or Brazil. They will provide effective support in the day-to-day management of production and distribution using its existing global and Brazilian platforms.

    Sanmarino, which is a Colombian poultry genetics distribution company belonging to the Italcol group, will play an important role in supporting the commercialization and data collection of tilapia performance delivered to the Colombian industry. “We have no doubt that tilapia will follow a similar path as poultry, where genetics, innovation and distribution, carried out by highly specialized companies are transforming the industry year-over-year. This allows higher efficiencies in production and sharing best practice methods,” said German Galvis, Managing Director of Agroavícola Sanmarino.

    If you want to know more about The Future of Fish Farming: Tilapia, next 12, 20, and 26 of January please join us for several talks about this topic. The event is completely free and you can register here.



    Resources:

    -       https://thefishsite.com/articles/genomar-launches-colombian-tilapia-venture?fbclid=IwAR23w7cwEfuDEdyKzj9ULn0lE9ERv8J3EADouSZSv-4HRUyobYF_iPzVg7s

    -       https://genomar.com/2021/10/25/genomar-and-sanmarino-announce-a-joint-venture-to-supply-genetically-improved-tilapia-in-colombia/

  • 17 Dec 2021 1:47 PM | Anonymous

    David has 35 years’ experience in practical Tilapia Farming.  His aquaculture career started at Barony Agricultural College in Dumfries, Scotland. 

    On qualifying David worked at Willards Foods/Cairns Foods in the laboratory as a technician involved in reformulations and checking of formulations for the many food items produced by the company. David was appointed as the hatchery manager for the newly started Tilapia pond farming operations of the group, The Bream Farm.  The hatchery was based at the factory site in Harare Zimbabwe.  He was later appointed as the Depot Manager in Kariba, where the initial site was developed with a concrete RAS farming system, later the pilot cages on Lake Kariba and the conversion of the old freshwater prawn farm to the breeding farm for Tilapia.



    David then spent 11 years as an Operations Manager with a steel reinforcing and steel merchant company.  David ran his own businesses in South Africa in Air Conditioning and refrigeration for 5 years.  He worked in water storage for 4 years installing water tanks, reservoirs and lined dams.

    Returning to Aquaculture in 2010 David and his partner developed the Aquaculture Production Unit -   The APU.  The system allows a farmer to start farming from day 1 and to develop the skills and knowledge required to successfully grow Tilapia from fingerling to edible plate size fish.  The APU is scalable and modular allowing exponential growth and commercialization.  There are 450 APU units in 9 African countries with the potential of raising 450 Tonnes of Tilapia a year.  The continued sales and production from the APU’s will see Tilapia production steadily increasing on the African continent.  The first APU units have been shipped to the USA and these will open up opportunities to farmers in urban areas for the production of locally farmed Tilapia.





  • 17 Dec 2021 1:34 PM | Anonymous

    Ram has completed his MSc and PhD in aquaculture from AIT and has post-doc work experience with the University of Stirling, Scotland UK and Montpellier University III, France. He is founding Director of Aqua-Centre and Research Associate Professor at AIT. He has over 20 years of experience with AIT.

    His career started as Research Associate right after his MSc degree working with a joint venture project launched for the transfer of tilapia hatchery technology to private sector. A private company, named Nam Sai Farm in Thailand which was established with the purpose of supplying monosex tilapia fry which is produced using a technique of converting females into fast-growing males.  He also did all his PhD research at the same farm which expanded to several branches within Thailand and other countries such as Bangladesh. The farm has now become one of the largest and technically advanced tilapia hatcheries in the world. Ram has trained over 600 senior officials of government and NGOs, senior executives of private companies and other professionals from all over the world.

    Ram has also designed and implemented several other projects in many countries to address the issues of food and nutrition security, low income and unemployment. He has been successful in winning several competitive projects e.g. curriculum development projects funded by EU and others. Currently, he is the Team Leader of “Curriculum Development for Sustainable Seafood and Nutrition Security (SSNS) co-funded by EU Erasmus+ programme which involves over 50 lecturers from 13 University partners in Greece, UK, Norway, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam. Other projects include women in aquaculture in Nepal, entrepreneurship in women in Myanmar among others. 

    He has received a Gold Award by Asian Fisheries Society (AFS), Award from ICN International Media Group, and Fellow Award by the Society for Agriculture Innovation and Development (India) for his contribution in the sector.

    He is the sole author of the popular tilapia book entitled, “A Manual for Tilapia Business Management” which has been written based on his experience which is available online including eBay and Amazon.com and so on, such as: https://www.cabi.org/bookshop/book/9781780641362/

    He will describe the technologies developed by AIT that include mass scale production of monosex fry, hapa nursing, and green water pond and cage culture systems along with others growout system such as Aquaponics, Biofloc and IPRS (In-pond raceway systems) models of tilapia grow-out farming ranging from large commercial scale to backyard gardening for family food and nutrition security which are important especially in the context of COVID19.



  • 1 Dec 2021 6:30 PM | Giuliana Barajas (Administrator)

    When we look back through the history of aquaculture, the practice dates back approximately 4,000 years to China and 3,500 years to Mesopotamia. In ancient China, during the Eastern Han dynasty (25 to 250 AD), the combined production of rice and fish was documented. There are also reports that aquaculture was carried out by the Romans, Egyptians, Eurasian and American cultures. Interestingly, one of the first pieces of evidence of the reproduction of the Nile Tilapia in captivity irrigation ponds was from paintings from Theban, Egypt, dating back to 1500 BC.

    Today, aquaculture is more than pond fish farming, as it involves the production, reproduction and management of living resources in a restricted environment.


    According to The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), aquaculture is "the exploitation of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants."

    Much is known about the cultivation of Tilapia to date, but what is its future?

    This topic will be addressed by Greg LutzProfessor of Aquaculture at Louisiana State University.

    After earning his PhD from LSU, Dr. Lutz planned, designed and subsequently supervised the construction, outfitting and operation of the largest commercial aquaculture facility in the state of Louisianas. To date he has authored over 280 scientific, extension and popular publications.

    He has worked with a number of aquatic species, and visited 24 countries to date for aquaculture-related activities. The author of Practical Genetics for Aquaculture (Wiley), Dr. Lutz has visited and worked with tilapia farms and hatchery operations on 5 continents.

    Additionally he has been involved with catfish production, inland recreational fisheries (an estimated 120,000 private ponds exist in Louisiana), inland commercial fisheries and a variety of aquatic ecology topics.

    You do not want to miss this event! Register here for free.



  • 30 Nov 2021 5:11 PM | Anonymous

    By: Roy Palmer

    You know what they say – ‘If you are not leading then you are following’ and that would often apply to many people and organisations in the seafood industry. Sad but true!

    The Fishmonger did not attend COP21 in Glasgow, besides not being invited he finds such meetings full of gloom and doom and lacking practical solutions. It has been reported that there were over four hundred private jets at Glasgow Airport carrying only a minute percentage of the audience and that speaks volumes about the lack of comprehension of the subject. Imposing your issues onto others never goes over well when your own actions are arrogant. In the end events like COP21 are just talk fests and if you are waiting for governments to do something then you will be waiting a long time. Remember we are where we are today because of decisions by these same people. Do not forget that ‘common sense is not so common’!

    It is easy to get overwhelmed by climate science, carbon sinks, renewable energy, etc and what the questions and answers are. In essence, we must take some blame as we can all be guilty of ‘taking the easy route’ instead of questioning what damage is being done to our planet if we use this product or change our systems and asking about alternatives.

    Hopefully, The Fishmonger can spark some action, and you can rise to the challenge – be sure to let us know what you are doing.

    The *Blue Food Assessment report was promoted earlier in the year, and it mentioned the crucial involvement that seafood will play in global food security and nutrition and its relationship to climate change. We are already seeing changes in various aspects of our aquatic resources and supply chains due to climate changes, so this report is important to consider. One of the key findings is that ‘increased fisheries and aquaculture production is possible and sustainable, and by 2030 could prevent undernutrition in an additional 166m people worldwide’ – how positive is that!

    Also be aware that whilst your governments will be slow to react, the apparent rise of conscious consumers in the marketplace has led to many businesses and brands, particularly those in retail, imposing tighter controls on what they promote on their shelves. This can impact your business so you cannot ignore and need to have your stories ready and be ready to promote your credentials.

    A UK processing company was recently reported as saying “We are extremely aware of our role in reducing our environmental impact through emissions, and since 2015, we have reduced our operational emissions (scope 1 and 2) by 52.5%. We understand that there is still much more to be done through the whole value chain, from improving the availability and accuracy of data to the importance of adopting and implementing science-based targets that align with the **Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recommendations.”

    The Fishmonger knows that seafood as a whole has a positive story when it comes to its emissions, but sadly we are not promoting those exceptional stories. We cannot rest with that knowledge and as a global industry, we should be pro-active in collaborating, sharing our stories, information and knowledge and be leaders in sustainable food production.

    The report makes a positive statement up front that ‘aquatic foods are a vital component of many food systems yet have received little attention in food policy discourse.’ The description of ‘blue foods’ (animals, plants and algae harvested from freshwater and marine environments) highlights the supply of protein (and we know it is actually far more than a protein) to over 3.2 billion people, contributing a key source of nutrients in many coastal, rural and indigenous communities, and supporting the livelihoods of over 800 million people, the majority of whom work in small-scale systems. Despite their contribution to food systems globally, the report acknowledges that blue foods tend to be underrepresented in discussions about how to feed the world's population sustainably over the coming decades. It would not be the first time that seafood was a last thought which reflects on the lack of global collaboration within the industry.

    The ‘blue food’ sector is changing fast and demand for aquatic foods continues to grow at a strong pace despite the gloom and doom you read in the media.

    What is difficult for global governments to understand is that the small-scale players that lie at the heart of many aquatic food systems have to grapple with these and many other challenges, including environmental degradation, economic shocks, and limited gender and social inclusion on top of failure of any specific strategies.

    Combining FAO and World Bank data, a research document by Rosamond Naylor (Stanford University) et al, estimates that the demand for fish has roughly doubled since the turn of the century and will likely double again by 2050. Focusing on the top two fish consuming countries in the five continents that make up the majority of demand, they estimate that Asia will continue to lead the way in freshwater fish consumption, with the highest demand for freshwater fish in 2050. Added to that is the fact that the majority of the worlds middle class will be constantly moving towards Asia.

    Their modelling projections suggest that China will consume a diverse range of species including crustaceans, demersal fish and cephalopods, Ghana and Peru will continue to dominate the consumption of small pelagic fish, and France, Spain, the US, Mexico and Brazil will continue to consume a wide variety of species. Per capita fish consumption in Nigeria is expected to remain low, at one-third of the level seen in Ghana. But given the large and growing size of the Nigerian population, country-level demand is expected to exceed that of Ghana by some margin in 2050.

    In an incredibly detailed report on climate risks to aquatic food systems by Michelle Tigchelaar (Stanford University) et al, they combine data on climate hazards, exposure and vulnerability for 219 countries, and show that aquatic food systems of Africa, South and Southeast Asia and the Indo-Pacific are the most vulnerable to face high climate risk by the middle of the century under a high-emissions scenario. Reducing societal vulnerabilities, for instance by strengthening governance, promoting gender equity, and reducing poverty, can lower climate risk by margins similar to meeting global mitigation targets. Missing is the need for more understanding here about the role aquaculture plays and the opportunity it also brings to this issue.

    Small-scale players have an essential role in global food and nutrition security, producing two-thirds of aquatic food for human consumption and much of the diversity in produce. Rebecca Short (Stockholm Resilience Centre) et al created a framework for characterizing the diversity of actors in this sector based on seventy case profiles spanning a wide range of geographies and systems. Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people. Players vary widely in terms of inputs and assets, degree of specialization, the markets they serve and the type of management by which they are controlled. Despite this diversity, commonalities emerge. Activities are controlled at a local level by individuals or groups of households. Aquaculture producers often innovate and adapt. Fisher folk tend to engage in cooperative forms of management. The cultural importance of aquatic foods also comes to the fore.

    Modern-day governance assumes uniformity in SSFA despite the diverse nature of this sector. The framework can inform adaptive governance actions supporting the diversity and vital roles of SSFA in food systems, and in the health and livelihoods of nutritionally vulnerable people—supporting their viability through appropriate policies whilst fostering equitable and sustainable food systems.

    The case profiles demonstrate a multitude of benefits associated with greater awareness of and support for the diversity within and across SSFA systems. SSFA players currently have key roles in families, communities, and nations. Many times, they are ignored in policy decisions yet there is a compelling case for their critical centrality in viable aquatic food systems. The paper highlights that there are trade-offs that policymakers have to navigate to maintain the benefits from continued engagement of SSFA players.

    Meeting the needs of global consumers through large-scale industry poses risks for the cultural integrity, equity, nutritional security, and livelihoods provided by SSFA and longer-term actions to redress broader power inequalities, constrain monopolies and support the diversity of SSFA capacities is critical, the report concludes.

    A nuanced understanding of the aquatic food sector, with its diverse produce and players, production processes and impacts, demands and vulnerabilities, can yield benefits for people and the planet. In order to realize these benefits, aquatic foods must be engaged into the fold in total food systems discourse and managed as an integral part of these systems.

    If managed appropriately, aquatic foods have the potential to make a meaningful contribution to the nutritious, sustainable, and just food systems of the future, particularly in some of the most food-insecure parts of the world.

    We can all play our leadership role - that is the challenge for us all.

    Comments & References

    * The Blue Food Assessment is a high-level international collaboration that brings together over 100 researchers looking at all aspects of aquatic food production.

    **Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change.

    Blue food (nature.com)

    Harnessing the diversity of small-scale actors is key to the future of aquatic food systems | Nature Food


  • 30 Nov 2021 5:00 PM | Giuliana Barajas (Administrator)


    Recent Nile Tilapia breeding research has uncovered a feed solution in a fruit.

    By: Raul Pajaro Sanchez

    Fish feed is one of the most important aspects of aquaculture. If the fish are fed the necessary nutrients and proteins, they will grow bigger, stronger, and will provide more sustenance. Additionally, a rigorous diet, adequate fertilization and a good supply of water are essential for effective breeding.

    Recent research has shown that pineapple peel meal can be used to feed Nile Tilapia fingerlings without compromising growth or affecting digestibility parameters.


    Olaleye Waheed of the University of Agriculture Abeokuta in Nigeria conducted a feeding trial in 2011 to investigate the effect of fermented pineapple peel meal on the growth behaviour and digestibility of Nile Tilapia.

    During his research, Waheed substituted 35% crude corn protein with fermented pineapple husk flour at levels of 0, 25, 50 and 75%.

    It was observed that the fermented pineapple peel was more suitable as an energy supplement when it was incorporated at a level of 75%*. Likewise, the final weight of the fish did not show significant differences in all the diets.

    Based on their result, Waheed recommends that an inclusion of 75% pineapple peel in the diet of tilapia fingerlings is optimal without compromising growth rate or affecting digestibility parameters.

    This theory has gained traction in 2021 as Morteza Yousefi, Associate Professor in the Department of Veterinary Medicine at RUDN University, stated that “pineapple supplements have a positive effect on the growth and immunity of tilapia. Biologically active components of the plant, such as the bromelain, can play a role. It stimulates the activity of the immune system and promotes the functioning of the intestines”. Although Yousefi did warn that, “the supplement should be included in the diet in small amounts. An excess of plant fiber restricts the growth of fish, and prolonged stimulation of the immune system by supplements leads, on the contrary, to suppression of immune responses." He did agree that, “Other substances in pineapple can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the fish’s body.”  


    Join us to discuss more Tilapia-related topics on January 12th, 20th and 26th at the 'Future of Fish Farming: Tilapia' event with Mr. David Fincham, Director David Fincham Aquaculture Pty Ltd, Dr. Ram Bhujel, Director of Aqua-Center, Research Associate and Mr. Greg Lutz, Professor of Aquaculture Louisiana State University.

    * The Weight Gain, Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Rate (FCR) and Protein Production Value (PPV) were 35.6 g, 2.25% / day, 2.58 and 0.56, respectively.




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